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exercises
exercise specifications, objectives, some examples below, most recent at top.

Fontbook instructions
Applications > Fontbook
File : New Collection (give it a name, like Type 1)
File : Add Fonts
Add fonts (from where?) : Working Volume > Adobe Font Library > Font Folio / Western Fonts scroll down to — and select with one click only — the font you want to activate (e.g., Univers)
click Open
 

Book Assembly for Paragraph Studies 2
File > Print Booklet
Print Settings (lower left)...
most important: be sure to change Printer settings to double sided, short-edge binding
books must be a multiple of four pages
front and back cover can be treated separately (they are not part of the text block)
Will discuss this at length in class
 

paragraph studies 3, ¶ indicators, index, lists
specs
  1. Three paragraphs, any source (your favorite book)

    Using our tabloid-size, 6-column grid: create three columns, each two grid-columns wide.

    Indicate new paragraphs by indent, outdent, rule (above); small caps (or bold font) for first several words; "space after" (in "Indents and Spacing"). Everything should be defined by paragraph (and even character) styles. Minimum three examples (one in each column). We are using three paragraphs so that we can see what happens between paragraphs.
    see list of possibilities in de Bartolo et al, Explorations in Typography (2nd edn, 2016)

  2. Index your source text (20 entries, more is better).

    One version will indicate not pages but line numbers.

    A second version indicates not page but paragraph numbers (numbered list).
    See Bullets and Numbering discussion in Sandee Cohen InDesign CC, especially pp 64-65.

    (pending)
    Third version treats indexicality in a different way.
    By purely typographic means, draw attention to specific words or phrases in the source text, perhaps expressing something about them, e.g., their frequency in the text, or importance.
    Nicholas Felton’s Feltron annual reports provide an example of visualization (taken to extremes); tag clouds, color coded words, etc., are other possible means.

timeassigned Thursday 21 September
conclusion Thursday 28 October
objectivesfurther experience with paragraph styles; examine models; think of ways to indicate new paragraphs, lists, tags, and the like.

Tuesday, bring in your text: minimum three paragraphs each in three columns, each column showing a different means of indicating new paragraphs. Even better: six such examples.

And, have start creating an index of expressions in your text. You may need to examine some indexes. Bring in a single book with an index — chosen for the quality or interest of the index.

We will do two different indexes, one pointing to line numbers, the other to paragraph numbers. Example of the first index (and its settings) below. I will demonstrate the paragraph number version in class: it will involve "Bullets and Numbering" in Paragraph Styles.

 index, one configuration: six columns: three for text, one for line numbers, one for index, one blank.
baseline grid is same as text (and line number) leading.
exterior margins not shown.

The baseline grid is a convenient way to align text and line numbers. To set baseline grid : inDesign > Preferences > Grids > Baseline Grid : increment every [     ] (0p18 above), relative to : top margin

 index, close view of text and line numbers.

text : MillerText 14/18;
left justify;
word spacing 90% 100% 110%;
measure three 9p2 columns plus two 1p0 margins = 29p6

line numbers : MillerText 9/18;
align right; right indent 8p0;
col width 9p2
 

 index, close view of line numbers and index.

index : MillerText 10/12.5;
align left (rag right);
left indent 1p0; first line indent –1p0
col width 9p2

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paragraph studies 2 (continued)
specsparagraph (style) settings — alignment, hyphenation, word spacing, maybe letter spacing.

Now create the book to contain the specimens. book will contain

  1. title page and table of contents (referring either to Stein explanations 1 – 6, or to page numbers (inserted manually (not auto)).
  2. The title page design will somehow reflect design of paragraph studies and their respective informational pages.
  3. Examine title pages. How are they arranged? What is on them? Publisher and/or place of publication? date? ctered or left aligned? or something else? and, what typeface, that doesn't favor one of the typefaces for which there are specimen pages?
  4. and tables of contents. How are they arranged? What makes sense for our books? centered? left aligned? leader in the table of contents? or page numbers three spaces after the last word for each item?
  5. Paragraph styles for all elements.
  6. For either left or (probably best) left justified, do an extreme version (illegible ok, using extreme settings for justification, e.g., negative letterspacing). Push it until it breaks.
  7. Final document must contain a multiple of four pages (e.g., 16, 20, 24, 28, 32) in order to print correctly.
  8. We will output via print booklet under file, on tabloid stock to be supplied by instructor (for final version).
timeconclusion Wednesday 21 November : look at dummies;
production Tuesday 26 September,
when we will also be continuing our paragraph studies (lists, etc.).
objectivesIn assembled book form, we can consider appropriateness of our settings, and even adjust as necessary, and relate these to frontmatter (title page, table of contents).

Consideration and evaluation of how design of typographic interior relates to the design and feel of the physical object.

                 

paragraph studies 2, type specimens
specsparagraph (style) settings — alignment, hyphenation, word spacing (and possibly letter) spacing.
  1. page setup
    4.25 inches (26p0) by 7 inches (42p0)
    suggested margins : outside and top : 2p0
    inside : 3p0
    bottom : 5p0
    facing pages (=spreads)
    This size allows us to print on letter-size paper (8.5x11, landscape orientation), as spreads (for inspection) and even booklet mode later.

    remember
    You can also create new margins in the layout > margins and columns menu. Do this for the master page (by double clicking on it, and then adjusting layout); or if you do it for the first page, drag that new layout up to, and drop into, the master page.
    (and, if you have created a new page that doesn't show your layout/margins, drag the master page down to that page)

  2. Create text boxes on facing pages, pour in text. Remove line breaks to create two paragraphs for each type specimen. (and so we'll need to think indents too.
  3. Two facing pages, for examples of
    six different typefaces, one each from the style classifications &mdash
    Garalde Oldstyle (e.g., Garamond Premier Pro)
    Transitional (e.g., ITC New Baskerville)
    Didone (Modern) (e.g., Bodoni Std)
    Grotesque (e.g., Franklin Gothic)
    Neo-Grotesque (e.g., Helvetica, maybe Univers)
    Humanist (e.g., Gill Sans, Myriad Pro, Optima)
  4. One of the six Stein descriptions for each of those typefaces.
  5. One version each page: on left, justified, on right, ragged right. Choose one size, and use same size for all six typefaces.
  6. Create a paragraph style for each version, with a name that makes sense.
    Our job is to get the cleanest, most even read we can achieve, with the settings available via Indents and Spacing (for alignment), Hyphenation, and Justification (word and letter spacing...). We’re trying to avoid rivers, excessive word spacing, etc.

    later (but think ahead) —

  7. for each example, a page (left side) spelling out the number (e.g., three) — at any size, big probably best! — plus the figure
    followed by name of typeface, all of the upper and lower case letters and figures, and your settings for the facing pages.
  8. Our job is to get the cleanest, most even read we can achieve, with the settings available via Indents and Spacing (for alignment), Hyphenation, and Justification. We’re trying to avoid rivers, excessive word spacing, etc.
  9. Important
    At the bottom, you should present the settings you’ve used on that page.
timeMonday 19 September
complete on Wednesday 21 September (when we take this exercise a step or two further.
objectivesgetting a sense of what we can control in paragraphs to achieve comfortable reading, even grays, avoidance of excessive white spaces between words, and rivers of white down a column.
introduction to paragraph style settings.

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paragraph studies 1
specsparagraph (style) settings — alignment, hyphenation, word spacing, maybe letter spacing.
  1. page setup : same grid as previously
    11 x 17 inches (66p0 x 102p0).
    six columns, nine rows.
    exterior margin 3p0, but 8p6 at bottom.
    each column 9p2 wide
    each row 9p2 high, with a
    1p0 margin between rows.
  2. Three different column widths : column 1; columns 2+3; and columns 4+5+6.

    aside
    Some other orientation (horizontal) is acceptable, so long as there are three examples and each is a different column width.

  3. Create three text boxes, pour in text — the Gertrude Stein piece we used for our grid study. Use at least two paragraphs in each of three boxes.
  4. Use Garamond Pro (via FontBook > add font > working volume > Adobe Font Library > Adobe Garamond Pro

    Create a paragraph style for each column width, with a name that makes sense.
    Our job is to get the cleanest, most even read we can achieve, with the settings available via Indents and Spacing (for alignment), Hyphenation, and Justification. We’re trying to avoid rivers, excessive word spacing, etc.

    You may use different sizes of Garamond, one different size for each box (column) width. Make the text work well in each.

  5. Two versions: one justified, one left justified (= rag).
    You will need six paragraph styles in all (three for ragged right, three for justified).

    For either left or (probably best) left justified, do an extreme version (illegible ok, using extreme settings for justification, e.g., negative letterspacing). Push it until it breaks.

  6. Our job is to get the cleanest, most even read we can achieve, with the settings available via Indents and Spacing (for alignment), Hyphenation, and Justification. We’re trying to avoid rivers, excessive word spacing, etc.
  7. Important
    Record your settings at bottom of column: e.g., Garamond Pro, 12/15, justified, hyphens on, wordspacing 90-100-110)
timeTuesday 12 September
complete for Thursday 12 September (when we take this exercise a step or two further.
objectivesgetting a sense of what we can control in paragraphs to achieve comfortable reading, even grays, avoidance of excessive white spaces between words, and rivers of white down columns of different widths.
introduction to paragraph style settings.

Highly recommend a glance at the Rrose Sélavy (Marcel Duchamp): Some French Moderns Says McBride (1922) (low resolution scan, at 12MB, quite good enough!) for interesting example of increasing type size through successive pages.

 ex Rrose Sélavy (Marcel Duchamp): Some French Moderns Says McBride (1922); Beinecke Library copy

Duchamp described his idea for layout in a June 1922 letter to McBride: The brochure would have 26 or 27 pages (front–back) since each letter is on a page of its own. Now, if I have enough room, I propose the following: Set off on the first page with minute characters, ending up on the last page with big characters, making the characters progressively larger with each page. [..] I have already chosen the typeface ranging from 5 pt for the first page to 12 or more for the last page which will have 5 words (I think). With each page, the typeface, from the same family, will gradually increase in size. The first two articles on Cézanne will have to be read with a magnifying glass. And about the illustrations: My idea is to incorporate them into the text by gluing them onto the binding strip. I think it will be better to spread them out. (from Duchamp, Selected Correspondence, 2000)

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grid studies
specstypographic compositions, InDesign, tabloid

text from Gertrude Stein Descriptions of Literature. Text transcription at descriptions, or access pdf here.

aside —
If you dislike using Stein, select text from interview with poet Susan Howe (use only her answers, not the questions) here — for example, this passage —

All of us would search out books with photographs of Herreshoff boats, or ones with pictures of early submarines. I guess it was about that time I began to connect writing and drawing in my mind. This is important because if a boat sails fast it usually looks beautiful. As if the eye has some perfect knowledge that is feeling. Some enduring value, some purpose is reflected in the material you use. The mysterious link between beauty and utility is, for me, similar to the tie between poetry and historical documents; although it would take me years to explain what the connection actually is, I know it's there. Or rather than explain it, I show it in my writing....

  1. two compositions, all Univers one face (one weight): in one of these, all type 8pt, in the other, multiple sizes ok.
    examples (slightly different specs, several years ago)
  2. two compositions, as above, plus arbitrary graphic shape(s), derived from counter between letters.
     
    The graphic shape shall be the space between two letters. More than one such shape can be used on a page. You may derive it by hand (and then scanned), or via Photoshop or Illustrator. See Cyrus Highsmith for example.
     
    Scroll down to see two examples by Lisa Martinez, from Spring 2014.
     
    Structure your information in a disciplined, interesting way that takes full advantage of limitations (grid, margins, the shape) and the opportunities that result.
    Type may be reversed out of the shape (by changing its color from black to white)
    all type should respect the grid.
    We discussed the importance of counter space, letter space, and line space to the creation of an evenly textured paragraph and page. See the important discussion of this matter — and the examples — in Cyrus Highsmith, his Inside Paragraphs, pages 12-25.
timeThursday 7 September (starting with Highsmith, in betweens)
conclusion Tuesday 12 September
objectivesuse of grid, for structured typographic elements, and unstructured graphics

 
introduction
Some of us incorporated a grid in our form and space exercise; now we work with a grid on a larger canvas, wherein we compose with grid-behaving typographic content, and some graphic stuff, that may be either randomly or intentionally placed.

first, some extracts

A grid breaks space or time into regular units. A grid can be simple or complex, specific or generic, tightly defined or loosely interpreted. Typographic grids are all about control. They establish a system for arranging content within the space of page, screen or built environment.
      Ellen Lupton, Thinking with Type

The use of the grid as an ordering system is the expression of a certain mental attitude inasmuch as it shows that the designer conceives his work in terms that are constructive and oriented to the future.
This is the expression of a professional ethos: the designer’s work should have the clearly intelligible, objective, functional and aesthetic quality of mathematical thinking...
Working with grid systems means submitting to laws of universal validity.
The use of the grid system means submitting to laws of universal validity.
The use of the grid system imples the will to systematize, to clarify...

      ex Joseph Müller-Brockmann, his Grid and Design Philosophy (1981),

There’s nothing like putting stuff in boxes. (or something to that effect)
      Muriel Cooper (somewhere)

The grid is an important underlying principle of typographic organization : spatial organization; hierarchies; rhythm; structure. Judicious use of grids gives permission for empty spaces, if there’s nothing to occupy them. The grid, and a systematic approach to design generally, also helps us to find and exploit opportunities (opportunities afforded by structure).

the work

two grid studies, using Futura Std, with type of same sizes/weights — e.g., Book weight, 8pt). Any more than the minimum two may include type of different sizes (and weight).
and
large graphic elements (derived from space between two typographic letters).

specifications — 11 x 17 inches (66p0 x 102p0).
six columns, nine rows.
exterior margin 3p0, but 8p6 at bottom.
each column 9p2 wide
each row 9p2 high, with a
1p0 margin between rows.

How?
Open InDesign CC.
New document. Tabloid (66p0 x 102p0). Turn facing pages off.
Go to (and click on) master page (top of the little layout window at upper right; if not there, top menu > window > pages)
Change default margins from 3 picas (= 1/2 inch). Make them 3p0 at left, right and top, and 8p6 at bottom). Open.
Choose Layout > Create Guides. Enter 6 columns, 9 rows. important: Options: Fit guides to Margins.
OK, look at your document. Should have six columns, nine rows with 1p0 margins between them. To add pages, Layout > Add or insert pages.

You’ll need to bring your graphic into the document, too. Scan, copy and paste, or place the image file into the page you’re working with. Make it large. Low resolution is ok.

Making the letter space a thing

N.B.: using Adobe Illustrator CC

  1. text (type two or three letters)
  2. top menu > type > create outlines
  3. object > ungroup, and
    release compound paths
  4. create a shape (rectangular, but could be any) over area you want to work with.
    draw it over the area of interest
    select all
    use Pathfinder (top menu, window > Pathfinder)
    bottom left icon > Divide
  5. object > ungroup (again)
    pieces should be separately movable now.

reminder
To see full page, View > Fit Page in Window.
To view page without grid/guide lines, go to bottom of vertical tool bar, click and hold on the small black arrow at bottom right of icon, and select preview.
To view page with grid/guidelines, same action but click on normal.
Finally, to see type rather than grey greeking rule, go to InDesign > Preferences > Display Performance > Greek Type (change from 7p to 4p). It will be too small to read, but will look more like type.

reminder 2
See also Cyrus Highsmith, his discussion of Type Design, in Nancy Skolos and Thomas Wedell, Graphic Design Process : From Problem to Solution, 20 Case Studies (2012) : pages 78-87

examples

 
 
 Shown above, four grid studies by Yang Li (Dante), Fall 2011.
 
 Lisa Martinez, Grid Studies, 11x17 inches, example no. 1
 
 Lisa Martinez, Grid Studies, 11x17 inches, example no. 2
 

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form and space, 2 (rules and measures)
specstypographic compositions, using rules and the I. H. Finlay aphorism, presented in four 10-inch squares; you'll need to trim from 11x17 sheet).
  1. Content is text by I. H. Finlay (on gardening)
    It is the case with gardens as with societies: some things require to be fixed so that others may be placed.
    Ian Hamilton Finlay, ex Some Detached Sentences on Gardening (here)
  2. Full aphorism (21 words), once only, in each composition. Must be legible; however, words may be separated, etc. In two must be horizontal or vertical baseline, aligning with grid. In two others, need not be.
  3. All versions using Universe (any size or weight).
  4. plus rules, horizontal only. Use step-and-repeat function (under "edit") to multiply. Use rules of different thicknesses (e.g., 3p). Specifiy length, and use step-and-repeat to multiply: specify vertical and horizontal offset, and "count." Rules may bleed off the 10x10 square.
  5. set up new document, tabloid (102p x 66p), facing pages off.
    margins top: 12p0 bottom 30p0 left 3p0 top 3p0
  6. Document grid will probably default to 1-inch, with 1/4 inch micro-grid.
  7. Final presentation, trimmed to 10x10 inches.
timeTuesday 5 September : review first project
launch rules and measures (intro to Indesign)

Thursday 7 September : review rules and measures exercise
launch grid/paragraph studies

objectives

This is largely a 2D design exercise.
Continued interested in activating the square space, but now incorporating rules for rhythm, textures, overlaps of texture.

discussion

This project is continuation of 2-D emphasis, but with new emphasis on systematic use of step-and-repeat function.
 

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form and space, 1 (fixed and placed)
specstypographic compositions, presented in four 10-inch squares (on non-repro blue gridded paper; you'll need to trim from 11x17 sheet).
  1. Content is text by I. H. Finlay (on gardening)
    It is the case with gardens as with societies: some things require to be fixed so that others may be placed.
    Ian Hamilton Finlay, ex Some Detached Sentences on Gardening (here)
  2. All 21 words must be used at least once on the four compositions. No single composition need contain all 21 words. The words (or letters, and even parts of letters) need to align in some way with the grid — either 1-inch, of 1/4-inch. Words or letters may be at any scale, and need not be fully legible.
  3. However, each of the 21 words needs to be legible at least once.
  4. All versions using Universe (any size or weight). Instructor will distribute the text, in univers, at more than one size: this may be further enlarged at photocopier.
  5. The grid paper is 1" grid, with fine 1/4" lines. I would suggest using only 1 inch, or perhaps 1/2 inch — the 1/4 inch is too finely reticulated to be an organizing principle or guide.
  6. Trace, or cut and glue. If glue, do it lightly or only when satisfied that one (or all!) of the compositions are complete.
  7. All type is to be horizontal or vertical baseline (but can be upside down, or facing right or left.
  8. If you are using a light table (or window), you may trace.
    You could also trace onto tracing paper, but will still need to respect the grid.
  9. Final presentation, photocopy onto 11x17 paper, at 95 percent (to lose the blue grid lines).
  10. Those who are comfortable enough with InDesign to use it for this exercise, may do so. The grid must be respected, and invisible in the printouts.
timeThursday 31 August
conclusion Tuesday 5 September (review)
rules and measures (intro to Indesign)
objectives

This is largely a 2D design exercise.
As long as enough of the words can be read, we’re more interested in activating the square space, and working with the grid. Densities. Relationships. Masses. Relationship of massed shapes (of any size) with each other and the edges. Edges matter. Textures / grays.
Watch out for dead space. (hint: a single letter, even a period, in an otherwise dead space, can save it.)

discussion

This project is devoted to the dynamics of the 11 inch square space, texture, and its typographic content.

Typography is, in the first place, 2-dimensional design. There are exceptions and, indeed, the 2-D world is an abstraction : books are three dimensional, pages exist within them. Signage exists in space, within which we move relative to the sign. Etc.

But staying on the flat plane, for now, typography is about activation, control, modulation of gray (and colored) matter in space, across a sequence of such spaces. It also involves using white (empty) space dynamically. Elements need not be distributed evenly across a page (unless it's a novel, for example).

(The exercise was originally intended to emphasize that what appears on screen has no direct reference to what is printed on paper. Type that looks one size on screen, for example, looks very different when printed.)

Even in this early, exploratory exercise, we should care about straight edges, square corners, and care about the edge of the field. Our craft should aspire to that of fine furniture.
 

syllabus
everything about the class (minus exercise information, which is found on this page) : objectives, expectations, criteria for credit

exercises
Project briefs, resources.
tentative (for details on later projects listed below, see course website for Fall 2016.

  1. Form and Space 1 (fixed and placed)
  2. Form and Space 2 (rules and measures)
  3. grid studies (6 cols, 9 rows; text plus graphic material
  4. paragraph studies (several stages, culminating in book/s)
  5. index, ordered list
  6. poems and a book to contain them (poems derived from provided texts)
  7. 3D letters (tentative)
  8. wraptext (tentative)
  9. résumé (2-3 versions, plus card).
  10. sententiae (collaborative letterpress exercise)
  11. sententiae (markdown to print to web exercise, tentative)
  12. announcement (poster)

texts

Carolina de Bartolo (with Stephen Coles and Erik Spiekermann). Explorations in Typography (2016)
explorationsintypography.com

Cyrus Highsmith. Inside Paragraphs (2012)

Sandee Cohen. InDesign CC (Visual Quickstart Guide, 2014) — highly recommended

Adobe Font Folio 11, Type Reference Guide
recommended (and always in classroom); a booklet presenting names of all these typefaces, and groupings of many of these in various type classifications, will be distributed in the first week or two of class.

resources

Adobe Typography Primer pdf
a 20-page concise and useful overview; includes glossary. recommended.

bookmarks on design related anythings at pinboard.in/u:disegno.

montserrat design tumblr

imposition press tumblr
 

Comments/questions to jmcvey.